### Speaker

Prof.
Jukka Pekola
(Aalto University School of Science)

### Description

In nanostructures fluctuations of energy play an important
role, and the second law of thermodynamics, for example,
applies only on the average. The distribution of entropy
production and the work performed under non-equilibrium
conditions are then governed by so-called fluctuation
relations [1-3]. I apply these concepts to a simple
single-electron box [4,5], and present an experimental
demonstration of basic fluctuation relations in them [6,7].
Single-electron circuits provide furthermore a basic example
of a Maxwell’s Demon, where information can be converted
into energy [8]; here the information is collected by a
detector with single-electron sensitivity. Finally I discuss
the subtle issues of work and heat in open quantum systems.
I use superconducting qubits as examples of driven systems
in this context [9,10].
[1] C. Jarzynski, Nonequilibrium equality for free energy
differences, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2690 (1997).
[2] G. E. Crooks, Entropy production fluctuation theorem and
the nonequilibrium work relation for free energy
differences, Phys. Rev. E 60, 2721 (1999).
[3] U. Seifert, Entropy Production along a Stochastic
Trajectory and an Integral Fluctuation Theorem, Phys. Rev.
Lett. 95, 040602 (2005).
[4] D.V. Averin and J.P. Pekola, Statistics of the
dissipated energy in driven single-electron transitions, EPL
96, 67004 (2011).
[5] J. P. Pekola and O.-P. Saira, Work, Free Energy and
Dissipation in Voltage Driven Single-Electron Transitions,
J. Low Temp. Phys. 169, 70 (2012).
[6] O.-P. Saira, Y. Yoon, T. Tanttu, M. Möttönen, D. V.
Averin, and J. P. Pekola, Test of Jarzynski and Crooks
fluctuation relations in an electronic system, Phys. Rev.
Lett. 109, 180601 (2012).
[7] J. V. Koski et al., Distribution of entropy production
in nonequilibrium single-electron tunneling, in preparation
(2013).
[8] D. V. Averin, M. Möttönen, and J. P. Pekola, Maxwell's
demon based on a single-electron pump, Phys. Rev. B 84,
245448 (2011).
[9] P. Solinas, D. V. Averin, and J. P. Pekola, Work and its
fluctuations in a driven quantum system, arXiv:1206.5699 (2012).
[10] J. P. Pekola, P. Solinas, A. Shnirman, and D. V.
Averin, Calorimetric measurement of quantum work,
arXiv:1212.5808 (2012).